Test case writing is one of the first steps of a testing cycle, and is crucial for any project. Any mistake in the creation of test cases proliferates through the entire testing process, and severely impacts the quality and delivery time of the project. Hence, test case writing must be approached with a proactive mindset, a good understanding of the feature/software, and a passion to make it all pristine.
A test case
is defined as a set of actions and conditions to measure functionality and ensure that all requirements and expected results are met. Test cases can apply to any software application, can be for manual or automated testing, and are used in test case management tools as well. Test cases guide the testers through a sequence of steps to validate whether the software application is free of bugs, and is working as required by the end-users. In short, test cases form the base of the testing process for any software application or system. Here are foolproof tips on how write test cases effectively and efficiently:
Keep them simple but connected
Keep all the steps of any test case simple and precise. Include the correct mapping to the expected results. Make sure they are integrated with the test plan and other test cases. Refer to other test cases, relevant artifacts, GUIs, etc. where and when required, but keep a balance. Do not make a tester move back and forth between a pile of documents just to complete a single test scenario.
Be specific for the testers
Try not to leave the test data entirely on testers. Give them a range of inputs, especially where calculations are to be performed or the application’s behavior depends on inputs. This is because intentionally or unintentionally, testers may use the same test data repeatedly and overlook or miss out on other important data during the execution of Test Cases (TCs). Lastly, do mention which TCs are interdependent and/or batched. Explore Testworthy for complete test case management
Checklist to include essential elements
Make a checklist and ensure that every test case you write includes all essential elements, done the right way. Depending on your software and testing needs, your specific checklist may vary, but the following can be used as a template:
- 1. The test case has a strong title that is self-explanatory and describes the characteristic of the module.
- 2. The test case has a short description that is easy to understand and describes the TC’s goal.
- 3. Includes the steps to follow to achieve specific objectives.
- 4. Includes the preconditions that must be met before test executions, and assumptions if any.
- 5. Includes the expected results for all of the test steps.
- 6. Includes the actual results that describe how the test is behaving by following the mentioned steps.
- 7. Includes the test result i.e., Pass/Fail against the particular test case.
- 8. Ensure the test case is measurable so that at the end of the test run, you can conclude whether the test passed or not.
- 9. The test case is unique for the scenario you are writing for but is specific to a particular function.
- 10. The test case generates the same results every time no matter who tests it.
- 11. UseTraceability Matrix to ensure no functions/conditions are left untested.
- 12. Self-cleaning: Every test case must return the Test Environment to the pre-test state and should not render the test environment unusable. This is especially true for configuration testing.
Review your test cases and get them reviewed (peer review)
Once you are done with writing the last test case of a test scenario, go to the start and review all the TCs with the mindset of a tester. Think rationally and try to dry run your TCs. Evaluate all the steps and see if you have mentioned them clearly and if the expected results are in harmony with the steps. Ensure that the test data specified in TCs is according to the real-time environment. Verify that all references to other TCs, artifacts, or GUIs are accurate. Also, get them reviewed by your colleagues. Your peers can uncover defects in your test case design, which you may have missed.
Remember the end user is the most important stakeholder
The most important stakeholder is the ‘End User’ who will finally use the application. So never forget them at any stage of TC writing. Keep yourself in the shoes of the End User and go through all the TCs and judge the practical value of executing all your documented TCs.
Lastly, as a true QA, try to contribute to the business and give suggestions if you feel that something can be improved in the application. You do not have to accept the Functional Specification or Design document as it is. As a QA, your aim should not be to simply run tests, but also to make a difference!
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A good test case in QA must be clear, concise, and easy to comprehend. It should be traceable to requirements, have a particular test objective, be repeatable, have expected results, and be testable. It also needs to be well-organized, easy to maintain, and cover as much functionality as possible.
To become a better software tester, one must constantly learn new testing techniques and methodologies, have a comprehensive understanding of the product and its requirements, practice critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and have excellent communication and teamwork skills. Gaining experience through practicing and participating in learning opportunities can also help improve such skills.
Automation testing, security testing, mobile testing, and performance testing are some of the most in-demand software testing types. You can perform all of these types of testing using Testworthy. Moreover, Testworthy also helps you integrate Agile and DevOps methodologies into your testing activities throughout the software development lifecycle to drive better and more productive QA efforts.