Software testing techniques can make tests more efficient by reducing the number of test cases while increasing test coverage significantly. Every testing technique helps QA professionals and testers detect a specific type of error. Moreover, they can help identify different test conditions that are not easily recognized otherwise.
So, in this post, our QA experts have compiled a list of software testing techniques that can revitalize your manual testing processes and help detect errors efficiently:
1. Decision Table-Based Testing
QA professionals perform decision table-based testing to identify the different combinations of outputs and inputs a program can generate. This technique involves creating a table representing different input combinations with rows and the expected outcome of each combination with columns. This allows the QA professional to test the program in an organized and efficient manner to ensure that the program is behaving as expected for all potential input scenarios. Decision-based testing is normally preferred while assessing programs with complex rules, logic, or algorithms. It also allows the tester to see all possible paths the program may opt for and their resulting outputs.
2. Boundary Value Analysis
In many cases, errors occur at the extreme ends of a program's input space. For instance, if you enter a value near the maximum or minimum limits set in the program, an error might show up. To identify such errors, QA professionals use boundary value analysis. This technique allows them to find defects in a program by testing its behavior at its extreme ends or boundaries. Here, test cases are written to cover not only boundary values but also those that lie inside or outside the limits. This allows the program to work correctly at the edge cases and handle inputs close to boundary values without raising errors.
3. State Transition
During its execution, a program goes through several transitions. QA professionals must conduct state transition testing to ensure that a program seamlessly transits between states and handles changes correctly. In this technique, a program transitions between different states and verifies whether the program handles these transitions correctly. This technique also involves testing the program's behavior when it's static and remains in the same state.
Let's consider a program which verifies whether the password entered by the user is valid or not. The program will allow only three attempts, and if the user is unable to enter the right password, it'll block the account. If the user enters the right password in any of the three attempts, they will be able to log in successfully. Here's how the state transition diagram will look like for this test scenario:
The diagram shows that when the user enters the wrong password, they're moved to the next state. But, when they enter the wrong password successively for the third time, the program blocks the account. On the other hand, when the user enters the correct password in any of the three attempts or states, the program grants access.
4. Error Guessing
To perform this software testing technique, QA professionals and testers use their knowledge and experience to predict potential issues and defects in a program. This can involve using theoretical knowledge, past experiences with similar programs, or domain knowledge to identify potentially faulty areas in a program. Based on this analysis, the tester can create test cases to specifically target such areas in the program and verify whether it's functioning properly. Many QA professionals combine error guessing with other software testing techniques to generate better test results. This technique is also useful for spotting defects that other test techniques can't detect.
5. Equivalence Class Proportioning
This software testing technique allows QA professionals to classify test cases based on their input and output behavior. This technique aims to divide a program's input space into different equivalence classes.
Every class will represent a set of inputs expected to behave similarly. For instance, if a program accepts an integer input, there will be three equivalence classes. One class will contain all positive integers, another one will contain all negative integers, and the third will consist of all zero values.
By creating test cases for every equivalence class, the QA professional can ensure that the program can handle all potential input scenarios correctly.
By using these software testing techniques, you'll be able to create much better test cases. However, apart from using these techniques, our experts also recommend using the right test management tool
. To carry out efficient and effective testing processes, it's important to use software testing tools having the features you need to create better test cases and execute them correctly to generate accurate results.